La tunisie Medicale - 2022 ; Vol 100 ( n°08 ) : 652-655
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Summary

Introduction : Children’s Interstitial Lung Diseases (cHILD) are a heterogeneous group of rare respiratory diseases. Their common characteristics are gas exchange abnormalities and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates on chest imaging. This group includes inherited surfactant protein deficiency (ISPD), a little-known etiology in Tunisia.
Case Presentation : A 22-month-old boy was referred to investigate recurrent respiratory infections. He had polypnea, cyanosis, finger clubbing, pectus carinatum, intercostal retraction, and bilateral crackles on pulmonary auscultation. The chest imaging revealed a diffuse ground-glass appearance consistent with cHILD. Lung biopsy was suggestive of ISPD. The infant was mainly treated with intravenous corticosteroids. At the age of nine, he was still dependent on oxygen but had better exercise tolerance.
Conclusion : This case showed that recurrent respiratory infections can hide cHILD which may be related to ISPD, particularly in infants. A better knowledge of this disease was necessary to start specific treatment. Early management would lead to better prognosis.

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Reference
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