La tunisie Medicale - 2021 ; Vol 99 ( n°011 ) : 1055-1065
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Introduction: In critically ill patients, the diaphragm is subject to several aggressions mainly those induced by mechanical ventilation (MV). Currently, diaphragmatic ultrasound has become the most useful bedside for the clinician to evaluate diaphragm contractility.
Aim:  To examine the effects of MV on the diaphragm contractility during the first days of ventilation.
Methods: Two groups of subjects were studied: a study group (n=30) of adults receiving MV versus a control group (n=30) of volunteers on spontaneous ventilation (SV). Using an ultrasound device, we compared the diaphragmatic thickening fraction (DTF). Secondly, we analysed the relationship between DTF and weaning.
Results: comparatively to SV group, patients of MV group have a higher end expiratory diameter (EED) (2.09 ± 0.6 vs. 1.76 ± 0.32 mm, p=0.01) and a lower DTF (39.9 ± 12.5%  vs.  49.0 ± 20.5%, p=0.043). Fourteen among the 30 ventilated patients successfully weaned. No significant correlation was shown between DTF and weaning duration (Rho= - 0.464, p=0.09). A DTF value > 33% was near to be significantly associated with weaning success (OR=2; 95% CI= [1.07-3.7], p=0.05) with a sensitivity at 85.7%.  
Conclusions: diaphragmatic contractility was altered from the first days of MV. A DTF value >32,7% was associated to the weaning success and that may be useful to predict successful weaning with sensitivity at 85.7%.

Key - Words
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