La tunisie Medicale - 2021 ; Vol 99 ( n°02 ) : 269-276
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Summary

Background: Bacteremia become fearsome in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients with the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains.
Aim: Our purpose was to investigate the prevalence of MDR bacteremia in HSCT recipients at the Tunisian National Bone Marrow Transplant Center, associated factors and attributable mortality rate.
Methods: Our retrospective study (January 2010-December 2017) included all MDR bacteremia in the Hematology department. MDR rods were: extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacterales (ESBL-E), P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii resistant to at least three families of antibiotics, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant E. faecium (VRE).
Results: The prevalence of MDR bacteremia among HSCT recipients was 5.9% (48/816) with a stable trend over time (rs=0.18). Neutropenia, prior hospitalization, prior antibiotherapy and prior colonization with MDR pathogens were observed in 59%, 58%, 48% and 31% of cases, respectively. Imipenem was the most prescribed first-line antibiotic (50%). The attributable mortality rate was 13%. MDR bacteria (n=48) belonged to ESBL-E (60%), P. aeruginosa (19%), A. baumannii (13%), MRSA (4%) and VRE (4%). For ESBL-E and P. aeruginosa, the rates of antibiotic resistance were respectively, 17% and 44% to imipenem, 31% and 56% to amikacin and 15% and 0% to colistin. Strains of A. baumannii were susceptible only to colistin. The MRSA (n=2) were resistant to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin and susceptible to glycopeptides. The VRE (n=2) were susceptible to linezolid and tigecycline.
Conclusion: Low prevalence of MDR bacteremia in HSCT recipients but high attributable mortality rate, requiring reinforcement of hygiene measures.

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