La tunisie Medicale - 2021 ; Vol 99 ( n°02 ) : 243-251
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Summary

Abstract :
Introduction: Graves’ disease (GD) is a common autoimmune disorder. Graves’orbitopathy (GO) is its most common extrathyroidal manifestation. It is rare but may reveal the disease.
Aim: To describe the demographic, clinical and therapeutic features of GO.
Methods: We carried out a retrospective and descriptive analysis of 82 patients with GO. This study was conducted in Ophthalmology and Endocrinology departments of Taher Sfar University Hospital in Mahdia, between January 2010 and December 2017. GD patients diagnosed with GO were included.
Results: The mean age was 36.17 years ± 12.81. Patients aged 19-40 years had the highest rate of GO. The male-to-female ratio was 0.49. Family history of autoimmune thyroid disease was present in 15% and associated autoimmune disease in 4% of cases. Smoking was seen in 71% of patients. The onset of GO was simultaneous with onset of GD in 45%, before in 21% and after the onset of GD in 34% of cases. GO was bilateral in 76% of patients. The most common ocular symptoms were prominent eyes (55% of patients), ocular pain (11%) and diplopia (41%). Proptosis and upper eyelid retraction were the most common clinical signs (93% and 90% respectively). Dysthyroid optic neuropathy was present in one eye, keratitis in one eye and glaucoma in five eyes. Severe disease was noted in 11% and active disease was present in 7% of patients. CT-scan and magnetic resonance imaging scan (MRI) were performed in 48% and 42% of cases respectively. Proptosis was the most common radiological sign. Thyroid dysfunction was managed with anti-thyroid medication only (59%), thyroxine replacement (37%), radioactive iodine (35%) and thyroidectomy (6%). 20% of patients received corticosteroids. One patient required immunosuppressive therapy.
Conclusion: GO is a complex disease, which is associated with impaired quality of life and can potentially result in sight-threatening complications. Appropriate diagnosis, convenient therapy and a regular follow-up are necessary to improve results and avoid the aesthetic and functional sequelae.

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